3 Protocols Bringing Asset Issuance to Bitcoin

By Srikanth
5 Min Read
3 Protocols Bringing Asset Issuance to Bitcoin 1

Bitcoin was created to provide a secure store of value that would also allow peer-to-peer payments without relying on third parties like banks. While it has excelled in these areas, Bitcoin could offer more functionalities like other blockchain networks such as Ethereum.


Developers are working on innovations within the Bitcoin ecosystem to expand its use cases. A key area of focus is the introduction of protocols to facilitate the issuance of assets on this network.

This guide will focus on three notable protocols enabling asset issuance on the Bitcoin blockchain: RGB, Runes, and Taproot Assets. 

New Protocols Bringing Asset Issuance to Bitcoin

RGB, Runes, and Taproot Assets protocols aim to bring asset issuance capabilities to Bitcoin. Each has unique features that allow creation, management, as well as transfer of digital assets on the Bitcoin network. 

Let’s discuss these developments in detail below.


RGB protocol enables the execution of smart contracts between parties on the network. It was developed to improve on ‘colored coins’.

The concept of colored coins on Bitcoin involves adding unique data to a unit of bitcoin, therefore making it different from all other units on the network. Once colored, the coins can be transferred on the blockchain like regular Bitcoin. 

Projects can issue stablecoins, security tokens, and utility tokens using RGB’s smart contracts. 

Key features of RGB include:

  • It utilizes the Lightning Network: This enhances scalability by supporting the execution of private smart contracts. 
  • Uses client-side validation: Brings data off-chain and leverages the security and strength capabilities of the Bitcoin blockchain.


Rolled out in April 2024, the Runes Protocol stands out for its ease of use and simplicity. It integrates smoothly with the Bitcoin architecture, so there is no need for off-chain data, which is common in other protocols.

Using Runes, users can create fungible tokens like stablecoins and security tokens. 

The Runes Protocol has these features and benefits: 

  • User-friendly: Runes’s simple design enhances user experience. This also makes it a popular choice for many developers.   
  • UTXO-based design: The Runes UTXO-based model optimizes transaction processing, improving network efficiency. 

It’s also worth noting that Runes is designed to improve upon some of the limitations of BRC-20, such as slow speeds.   


Lightning Labs released the Taproot Assets protocol in October 2023. It’s powered by Bitcoin’s Taproot upgrade, which went live in 2021. With it, users can issue assets like fungible, non-fungible, and security tokens on the Bitcoin network and transfer them over the Lightning Network. 

Implementing the Taproot upgrade was a massive game-changer for Bitcoin in many ways. The switch allowed the Bitcoin Network to process more transactions and decreased the overall cost of transactions.

Some features of Taproot include:

  • Enhanced Privacy: Taproot significantly enhances privacy in Bitcoin transactions by implementing “scriptless scripts,” which obscure the complexity of smart contracts and multi-signature setups. 
  • Expanded Smart Contract Capabilities: Taproot’s introduction of Schnorr signatures, a more efficient cryptographic signature scheme, unlocks a myriad of new smart contract possibilities. These include atomic swaps, payment channels, and advanced multi-signature schemes, fostering innovation and development within the Bitcoin ecosystem.

What Does the Ability to Issue Assets Mean for Bitcoin?

Although Bitcoin operates on its blockchain and functions as a decentralized digital currency, various protocols, and technologies have been developed that enable the creation and management of other digital assets on top of the Bitcoin blockchain. 

Protocols like RGB and Taproot Assets help users to issue tokens tied to the Bitcoin blockchain. These tokens represent different assets, such as digital collectibles or even digital representations of real assets. 

Because the new tokens are associated with specific Bitcoin transactions, their existence and ownership are anchored to the immutability and security of the Bitcoin blockchain. 

This ability to issue assets opens up a wide range of possibilities for many use cases, including DeFi applications, crowdfunding, and tokenization of assets. 

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