Building Automation is making an intelligent building by using technically advanced systems that fully integrates the control of Security, Access control, Lighting, Heating, Ventilation, air-conditioning and other major building functions.
Building Automation Systems (BAS) refer to centralised, computer-based systems that monitor and control building systems and energy use. These systems vary in capability and functionality, but all are designed to give some level of centralised oversight and remote control of HVAC systems, lighting and other building systems, such as fire and life safety, security systems, elevators. Some centralised systems also provide the capability to monitor and integrate the functions of multiple buildings from a central location.
Building management system helps the facility managers in following ways
understand their buildings
make intelligent decisions in terms of operational and energy management
computerised maintenance scheduling
early detection of problem
individual tenant billing
Remote monitoring of the plants (such as AHU’s, fire pumps, plumbing pumps, electrical supply, STP, WTP, grey water treatment plant etc.
it helps in controlling following parameters
safety and security
The level of automation can be defines as per the requirement of the occupants and facility manager.The extent of automation helps in making the building more responsible for supporting the green cause.We can optimize the used of Lighting,power, water consumption based on occupancy.
A BAS consists of software and hardware; the software program, usually configured in a hierarchical manner, can be proprietary, using such protocols as C-Bus, Profibus etc. Vendors are also producing BMSs that integrate using Internet protocols and open standards such as DeviceNet,Modbus and Bacnet.
A typical Building automation system architecture has been indicated below for the better clarity.
Almost all multi-story green buildings are designed to accommodate a BMS system for the energy, air and water conservation characteristics. Electrical device demand response is a typical function of a BAS, as is the more sophisticated ventilation and humidity monitoring required of “tight” insulated buildings. Most green buildings also use as many low-power DC devices as possible, typically integrated with power over Ethernet wiring, so by design and concept always connected to a BMS through the Ethernet connectivity. Even a passive design intended to consume no net energy whatsoever will typically require a BMS to manage heat capture, shading and venting, and scheduling device use.
Protocols and industry standards for Building management and Automation system are as follows
ASHRAE(American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers), international organization for people involved in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, or refrigeration (HVAC&R)
BACnet, network communications protocol for building automation and control systems that has been adopted worldwide as ISO 16484-5:2003
LonTalk, protocol created by Echelon Corporationfor networking devices. The official ISO standard numbers for building automation worldwide are: ISO/IEC 14908-1, ISO/IEC 14908-2, ISO/IEC 14908-3, and ISO/IEC 14908-4
OPC, industry standard used widely in manufacturing, process control, and building automation. The open standard transfers, values, historical data, and alarms and events.